原文出处,今天搞一下http2

2019-09-20 07:31栏目:前端开发
TAG:

HTTP2 Server Push的研究

2017/01/05 · 基础手艺 · HTTP/2

原稿出处: AlloyTeam   

正文首发地址为-iOS HTTP/2 Server Push 探求 | 李剑飞的博客

生命不息,继续 go go go !!!

1,HTTP2的新脾性。

有关HTTP2的新特性,读着能够参照他事他说加以考察小编事先的文章,这里就不在多说了,本篇作品首要讲一下server push那一个特点。

HTTP,HTTP2.0,SPDY,HTTPS你应有明白的部分事

 


延续echo web框架,前日搞一下http2。

2,Server Push是什么。

一句话来讲来说正是当客商的浏览器和服务器在确立链接后,服务器主动将有些能源推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去央浼这一个能源时就径直从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举二个事例正是:

一旦多个页面有3个财富文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器乞求index.html的时候,服务器不仅仅再次来到index.html的原委,同偶然候将index.css和index.js的内容push给浏览器,当浏览器下一次恳请那2多个文本时就足以直接从缓存中读取了。

图片 1

HTTP2

What is HTTP/2?
HTTP/2 is a replacement for how HTTP is expressed “on the wire.” It is not a ground-up rewrite of the protocol; HTTP methods, status codes and semantics are the same, and it should be possible to use the same APIs as HTTP/1.x (possibly with some small additions) to represent the protocol.

The focus of the protocol is on performance; specifically, end-user perceived latency, network and server resource usage. One major goal is to allow the use of a single connection from browsers to a Web site.

新的二进制格式(Binary Format)
HTTP1.x的分析是依赖文本。基于文本合同的格式分析存在先个性缺欠,文本的表现格局有多种性,要达成健壮性思索的场所必然比非常多,二进制则分裂,只认0和1的三结合。基于这种设想HTTP2.0的协商深入分析决定运用二进制格式,完成方便且健壮。

多路复用(MultiPlexing)
即接二连三分享,即每三个request都以是当做连接分享机制的。一个request对应一个id,那样贰个连连上能够有多少个request,每一种连接的request能够自由的插花在联合签名,接收方能够根据request的 id将request再归属到个别分化的服务端诉求里面。多路复用原理图:

header压缩
HTTP2.0应用encoder来裁减要求传输的header大小,通信双方各自cache一份header 田野同志s表,既制止了再度header的传导,又减小了供给传输的轻重。

服务端推送(server push)
同SPDY一样,HTTP2.0也具有server push功能。

3,Server Push原理是什么样。

要想驾驭server push原理,首先要明白一些定义。大家领略HTTP2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server push相关的帧首要分为这几系列型:

  1. HEADE锐界S frame(央求再次来到头帧):这种帧首要指导的http央求头音讯,和HTTP1的header类似。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧存放真正的数量content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来表示server push的帧,这种帧是达成server push的严重性帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(撤废推送帧):这种帧表示伏乞关闭帧,简单讲正是当client不想接受一些财富依然接受timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE frame一同使用时表示拒绝可能关闭server push。

Note:HTTP2.0有关的帧其实富含10种帧,正是因为尾部数据格式的转移,才为HTTP2.0带动相当多的特点,帧的引进不止利于缩小数量,也惠及数据的安全性和保证传输性。

叩问了有关的帧类型,上边正是现实server push的兑现进度了:

  1. 由多路复用大家得以领悟HTTP第22中学对于同一个域名的伸手会选拔一条tcp链接而用不一样的stream ID来区分各自的央求。
  2. 当client使用stream 1央浼index.html时,server符合规律管理index.html的诉求,并能够摸清index.html页面还将在会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE frame给client告诉client小编那边能够行使stream 2来推送index.js和stream 3来推送index.css财富。
  4. server使用stream 1不荒谬的发送HEADE奥迪Q5S frame和DATA frames将index.html的源委再次来到给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得知stream 2和stream 3来收纳推送能源。
  6. server获得index.css和index.js便会发送HEADE奥迪Q3S frame和DATA frames将财富发送给client。
  7. client获得push的能源后会缓存起来当呼吁这几个财富时会从直接从从缓存中读取。

下图表示了全方位流程:

图片 2

HTTP/2

变化证书

go run C:gosrccryptotlsgenerate_cert.go --host localhost
2017/11/22 10:06:58 written cert.pem
2017/11/22 10 :06:58 written key.pem

4,Server Push怎么用。

既然server push这么美妙,那么大家什么样运用啊?怎么设置服务器push哪些文件呢?

先是并不是独具的服务器都协理server push,nginx方今还不帮忙那些性格,能够在nginx的官方博客上获得认证,可是Apache和nodejs都已经匡助了server push那贰个特征,供给证实有个别的是server push那性子子是基于浏览器和服务器的,所以浏览器并从未提供对应的js api来让用户一直操作和决定push的剧情,所以只可以是通过header音讯和server的布署来实现具体的push内容,本文主要以nodejs来验证实际如何利用server push这一特点。

预备工作:下载nodejs http2帮助,本地运维nodejs服务。

1. 先是大家采纳nodejs搭建基本的server:

JavaScript

var http2 = require('http2');   var url=require('url'); var fs=require('fs'); var mine=require('./mine').types; var path=require('path');   var server = http2.createServer({   key: fs.readFileSync('./zs/localhost.key'),   cert: fs.readFileSync('./zs/localhost.crt') }, function(request, response) {     var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;     var realPath = path.join("my", pathname);    //这里设置自个儿的文件名称;       var pushArray = [];     var ext = path.extname(realPath);     ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : 'unknown';     var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";       if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {           response.writeHead(200, {             'Content-Type': contentType         });           response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,'binary'));       } else {       response.writeHead(404, {           'Content-Type': 'text/plain'       });         response.write("This request URL " + pathname + " was not found on this server.");       response.end();     }   });   server.listen(443, function() {   console.log('listen on 443'); });

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var http2 = require('http2');
 
var url=require('url');
var fs=require('fs');
var mine=require('./mine').types;
var path=require('path');
 
var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync('./zs/localhost.key'),
  cert: fs.readFileSync('./zs/localhost.crt')
}, function(request, response) {
    var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = path.join("my", pathname);    //这里设置自己的文件名称;
 
    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : 'unknown';
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";
 
    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {
 
        response.writeHead(200, {
            'Content-Type': contentType
        });
 
        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,'binary'));
 
    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          'Content-Type': 'text/plain'
      });
 
      response.write("This request URL " + pathname + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }
 
});
 
server.listen(443, function() {
  console.log('listen on 443');
});

这几行代码正是简单搭建一个nodejs http2服务,打开chrome,大家得以看到有着央求都走了http2,同一时候也能够证实多路复用的风味。

图片 3

此处须要注意几点:

  1. 创建http2的nodejs服务必得时依照https的,因为现在主流的浏览器都要扶助SSL/TLS的http2,证书和私钥能够团结通过OPENSSL生成。
  2. node http2的连锁api和例行的node httpserver一样,可以一贯接纳。

  3. 安装大家的server push:

JavaScript

var pushItem = response.push('/css/bootstrap.min.css', {        request: {             accept: '*/*'        },       response: {             'content-type': 'text/css'      } }); pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('/css/bootstrap.min.css','binary'));

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var pushItem = response.push('/css/bootstrap.min.css', {
       request: {
            accept: '*/*'
       },
      response: {
            'content-type': 'text/css'
     }
});
pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('/css/bootstrap.min.css','binary'));

笔者们设置了bootstrap.min.css来经过server push到我们的浏览器,我们得以在浏览器中查阅:

图片 4

能够见见,运转server push的能源timelime比比较快,大大加速了css的获得时间。

此地需求潜心上边几点:

  1. 大家调用response.push(),正是相当于server发起了PUSH_PROMISE frame来告诉浏览器bootstrap.min.css将会由server push来获得。
  2. response.push()再次来到的对象时叁个正常化的ServerResponse,end(),writeHeader()等艺术都得以平常调用。
  3. 此地一旦针对有些财富调用response.push()即发起PUSH_PROMISE frame后,要搞好容错机制,因为浏览器在后一次呼吁这一个财富时会且只会等待那么些server push回来的财富,这里要抓牢超时和容错即上边包车型地铁代码:
  4. JavaScript

    try {     pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('my/css/bootstrap.min.css','binary'));     } catch(e) {        response.writeHead(404, {            'Content-Type': 'text/plain'        });        response.end('request error'); }   pushItem.stream.on('error', function(err){     response.end(err.message); });   pushItem.stream.on('finish', function(err){    console.log('finish'); });

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    try {
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('my/css/bootstrap.min.css','binary'));
        } catch(e) {
           response.writeHead(404, {
               'Content-Type': 'text/plain'
           });
           response.end('request error');
    }
     
    pushItem.stream.on('error', function(err){
        response.end(err.message);
    });
     
    pushItem.stream.on('finish', function(err){
       console.log('finish');
    });

    地点的代码你恐怕会发觉比较多和不荒谬nodejs的httpserver不同的东西,那便是stream,其实任何http2都以以stream为单位,这里的stream其实能够了然成一个央求,更加的多的api能够参照:node-http2。

  5. 最终给大家推荐一个鬼子写的极度服务http2的node server有兴趣的能够尝尝一下。

HTTP/2 Server Push 是什么

当顾客的浏览器和服务器在确立链接后,服务器主动将某些能源推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去央浼那几个财富时就一贯从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举五个例子正是:

只要一个页面有3个财富文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器伏乞index.html的时候,服务器不独有再次回到index.html的内容,同临时间将index.css和index.js的内容push给浏览器,当浏览器后一次恳请那2多个公文时就足以一贯从缓存中读取了。

如下图所示:

图片 5

Apple-http2ServerPush

echo中的HTTP/2

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/labstack/echo"
)

func main() {
    e := echo.New()
    e.GET("/request", func(c echo.Context) error {
        req := c.Request()
        format := `
            <code>
                Protocol: %s<br>
                Host: %s<br>
                Remote Address: %s<br>
                Method: %s<br>
                Path: %s<br>
            </code>
        `
        return c.HTML(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf(format, req.Proto, req.Host, req.RemoteAddr, req.Method, req.URL.Path))
    })
    e.Logger.Fatal(e.StartTLS(":1323", "cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}

浏览器输入:

结果:

Protocol: HTTP/2.0
Host: localhost:1323
Remote Address: [::1]:1905
Method: GET
Path: /request

举例出现谬误:
http: TLS handshake error from [::1]:1735: tls: first record does not look like a TLS handshake.

请检查是或不是输入的是https

5,Server Push相关难点。

  1. 咱俩清楚以往我们web的财富一般都以坐落CDN上的,那么CDN的优势和server push的优势有什么分歧吧,到底是哪个十分的快吧?那一个主题材料笔者也一向在研究,本文的连锁demo都不得不算做贰个示范,具体的线上实行还在进展中。
  2. 出于HTTP2的有的新特色举个例子多路复用,server push等等都以依据同一个域名的,所以那大概会对我们事先对于HTTP1的一部分优化措施举例(财富拆分域名,合併等等)不必然适用。
  3. server push不仅可以够作为拉取静态财富,大家的cgi央求即ajax央求一样可以选拔server push来发送数据。
  4. 最完善的结果是CDN域名辅助HTTP2,web server域名也还要匡助HTTP2。

 

参照他事他说加以考察资料:

  1. HTTP2官方正式:
  2. 维基百科:
  3. 1 赞 1 收藏 评论

图片 6

HTTP/2 Server Push 原理是怎么

要想理解server push原理,首先要知道一些概念。大家明白HTTP/2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server push相关的帧首要分为那二种档案的次序:

  1. HEADEHavalS frame(诉求重回头帧):这种帧重要引导的http央求头音讯,和HTTP1的header类似。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧存放真正的多少content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来代表server push的帧,这种帧是落到实处server push的第一帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(打消推送帧):这种帧表示要求关闭帧,轻巧讲正是当client不想接受有些能源依旧收受timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE frame一齐行使时表示拒绝大概关闭server push。

(PS:HTTP/2相关的帧其实包罗10种帧,正是因为底部数据格式的改造,才为HTTP/2带来多数的表征,帧的引进不唯有有助于压缩数量,也实惠数据的安全性和可相信传输性。)

打探了相关的帧类型,上边就是现实server push的落到实处过程了:

  1. 由多路复用咱们能够掌握HTTP/第22中学对此同二个域名的乞请会使用一条tcp链接而用区别的stream ID来区分各自的乞请。
  2. 当client使用stream 1央浼index.html时,server符合规律管理index.html的乞请,并得以摸清index.html页面还就要会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE frame给client告诉client小编那边可以利用stream 2来推送index.js和stream 3来推送index.css能源。
  4. server使用stream 1不奇怪的发送HEADEMuranoS frame和DATA frames将index.html的内容重临给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得知stream 2和stream 3来收取推送能源。
  6. server获得index.css和index.js便会发送HEADEENCORES frame和DATA frames将能源发送给client。
  7. client获得push的财富后会缓存起来当呼吁那几个能源时会从第一手从从缓存中读取。

golang.org/x/net/http2

文书档案地址:

获取:
get golang.org/x/net/http2

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "html"
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "golang.org/x/net/http2"
)

func main() {
    var srv http.Server
    http2.VerboseLogs = true
    srv.Addr = ":8080"
    // This enables http2 support
    http2.ConfigureServer(&srv, nil)

    http.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
        fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hi tester %qn", html.EscapeString(r.URL.Path))
        ShowRequestInfoHandler(w, r)
    })
    // Listen as https ssl server
    // NOTE: WITHOUT SSL IT WONT WORK!!
    log.Fatal(srv.ListenAndServeTLS("cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}
func ShowRequestInfoHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "text/plain")
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Method: %sn", r.Method)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Protocol: %sn", r.Proto)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Host: %sn", r.Host)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "RemoteAddr: %sn", r.RemoteAddr)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "RequestURI: %qn", r.RequestURI)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "URL: %#vn", r.URL)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Body.ContentLength: %d (-1 means unknown)n", r.ContentLength)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Close: %v (relevant for HTTP/1 only)n", r.Close)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "TLS: %#vn", r.TLS)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "nHeaders:n")
    r.Header.Write(w)
}

浏览器输入:

结果:

Hi tester "/"
Method: GET
Protocol: HTTP/2.0
Host: localhost:8080
RemoteAddr: [::1]:2750
RequestURI: "/"
URL: &url.URL{Scheme:"", Opaque:"", User:(*url.Userinfo)(nil), Host:"", Path:"/", RawPath:"", ForceQuery:false, RawQuery:"", Fragment:""}
Body.ContentLength: 0 (-1 means unknown)
Close: false (relevant for HTTP/1 only)
TLS: &tls.ConnectionState{Version:0x303, HandshakeComplete:true, DidResume:false, CipherSuite:0xc02f, NegotiatedProtocol:"h2", NegotiatedProtocolIsMutual:true, ServerName:"localhost", PeerCertificates:[]*x509.Certificate(nil), VerifiedChains:[][]*x509.Certificate(nil), SignedCertificateTimestamps:[][]uint8(nil), OCSPResponse:[]uint8(nil), TLSUnique:[]uint8{0xa6, 0x3c, 0xfe, 0x93, 0x3c, 0x15, 0x4f, 0x74, 0xfc, 0x97, 0xca, 0x73}}

Headers:
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Alexatoolbar-Alx_ns_ph: AlexaToolbar/alx-4.0
Cookie: _ga=GA1.1.981224509.1509938615
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.94 Safari/537.36

Server Push 怎么用

Server Push

Server Push是什么

简单的讲就是当顾客的浏览器和服务器在确立链接后,服务器主动将部分财富推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去央浼这个能源时就一贯从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举叁个事例便是:
假使一个页面有3个能源文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器乞请index.html的时候,服务器不独有重回index.html的从头到尾的经过,同期将index.css和index.js的从头到尾的经过push给浏览器,当浏览器后一次央求那2八个文件时就足以一贯从缓存中读取了。

Server Push原理是何许

要想驾驭server push原理,首先要精通一些概念。大家驾驭HTTP2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server push相关的帧首要分为这几体系型:

HEADE福睿斯S frame(央求再次来到头帧):这种帧首要辅导的http要求头新闻,和HTTP1的header类似。

DATA frames(数据帧) :这种帧寄存真正的数量content,用来传输。
PUSH_PROMISE frame(推送帧):这种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来代表server push的帧,这种帧是促成server push的重要帧类型。

RST_STREAM(撤除推送帧):这种帧表示央浼关闭帧,轻松讲正是当client不想接受一些能源还是收受timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE frame一齐利用时表示拒绝或然关闭server push。

摸底了有关的帧类型,上边就是现实server push的贯彻进程了:
由多路复用大家能够驾驭HTTP第22中学对于同三个域名的伏乞会选拔一条tcp链接而用差别的stream ID来分别各自的呼吁。
当client使用stream 1乞求index.html时,server平常管理index.html的央浼,并得以摸清index.html页面还就要会呈请index.css和index.js。
server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE frame给client告诉client作者那边能够行使stream 2来推送index.js和stream 3来推送index.css能源。
server使用stream 1日常的出殡HEADE昂科雷S frame和DATA frames将index.html的剧情重返给client。
client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得知stream 2和stream 3来收取推送能源。
server得到index.css和index.js便会发送HEADEKoleosS frame和DATA frames将财富发送给client。
client得到push的财富后会缓存起来当呼吁那些财富时会从间接从从缓存中读取。

使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量

翻看 HTTP/2 流量的两种方法

  • 在 Chrome 地址栏输入 chrome://net-internals/#http2,使用 Chrome 自带的 HTTP/2 调试工具;
    使用方便,但受限于 Chrome 浏览器,对于 Chrome 不辅助的 h2c(HTTP/2 Cleartext,未有配置 TLS 的 HTTP/2)公约不能。相同的时间,这一个工具突显的音讯经过领会析和筛选,远远不够完美。
  • 使用 Wireshark 调试 HTTP/2 流量;
    Wireshark 位于服务端和浏览器之间,充当的是中间人剧中人物,用它查看 HTTP/2 over HTTPS 流量时,必得有所网址私钥也许借助浏览器分享对称密钥,技艺解密 TLS 流量,配置起来相比费劲。

nghttp2,是二个用 C 完毕的 HTTP/2 库,辅助h2c。它能够做为另外软件的一某个,为其提供 HTTP/2 相关成效(比方 curl 的 HTTP/2 成效就是用的 nghttp2)。除外,它还提供了多个有效的 HTTP/2 工具:

  • nghttp:HTTP/2 客户端;
  • nghttpd:HTTP/2 服务端;
  • nghttpx:HTTP/2 代理,提供 HTTP/1、HTTP/2 等合计时期的更动;
  • h2load:HTTP/2 性能测量试验工具;

Golang1.8中的Server Push

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "io/ioutil"
    "net/http"
)

var image []byte

// preparing image
func init() {
    var err error
    image, err = ioutil.ReadFile("./image.png")
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

// Send HTML and push image
func handlerHtml(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    pusher, ok := w.(http.Pusher)
    if ok {
        fmt.Println("Push /image")
        pusher.Push("/image", nil)
    }
    w.Header().Add("Content-Type", "text/html")
    fmt.Fprintf(w, `<html><body><img src="/image"></body></html>`)
}

// Send image as usual HTTP request
func handlerImage(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "image/png")
    w.Write(image)
}
func main() {
    http.HandleFunc("/", handlerHtml)
    http.HandleFunc("/image", handlerImage)
    fmt.Println("start http listening :18443")
    err := http.ListenAndServeTLS(":18443", "server.crt", "server.key", nil)
    fmt.Println(err)
}

浏览器输入:

能够行使插件HTTP/2 and SPDY indicator
chrome://net-internals/#http2

nghttp2 安装

先来用 brew 看一下有没有 nghttp 相关的库:

~ brew search nghttp
nghttp2

总的看是有 nghttp2 的,再用 brew 看下须要设置哪些条件:

~ brew info nghttp2
nghttp2: stable 1.21.0 (bottled), HEAD
HTTP/2 C Library
https://nghttp2.org/
Not installed
From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-core/blob/master/Formula/nghttp2.rb
==> Dependencies
Build: sphinx-doc ✘, pkg-config ✔, cunit ✘
Required: c-ares ✘, libev ✘, openssl ✔, libevent ✘, jansson ✘, boost ✘, spdylay ✘
Recommended: jemalloc ✘
==> Requirements
Optional: python3 ✔
==> Options
--with-examples
    Compile and install example programs
--with-python3
    Build python3 bindings
--without-docs
    Don't build man pages
--without-jemalloc
    Build without jemalloc support
--HEAD
    Install HEAD version

总的来讲须求的信赖还挺多。

使用 brew 安装 nghttp2 :

brew install nghttp2

全体妥善后,nghttp2 提供的多少个工具就足以向来用了。

echo框架中的Server Push

index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
  <title>HTTP/2 Server Push</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="/app.css">
  <script src="/app.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
  <img class="echo" src="/echo.png">
  <h2>The following static files are served via HTTP/2 server push</h2>
  <ul>
    <li><code>/app.css</code></li>
    <li><code>/app.js</code></li>
    <li><code>/echo.png</code></li>
  </ul>
</body>
</html>

main.go

package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/labstack/echo"
)

func main() {
    e := echo.New()
    e.Static("/", "static")
    e.GET("/", func(c echo.Context) (err error) {
        pusher, ok := c.Response().Writer.(http.Pusher)
        if ok {
            if err = pusher.Push("/app.css", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
            if err = pusher.Push("/app.js", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
            if err = pusher.Push("/echo.png", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
        }
        return c.File("index.html")
    })
    e.Logger.Fatal(e.StartTLS(":1323", "cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}

浏览器输入:

参考:

图片 7

nghttp

nghttp 做为四个效果与利益完全的 HTTP/2 顾客端,特别适合用来查看和调治将养 HTTP/2 流量。它辅助的参数比比较多,通过法定文书档案或然 nghttp -h 都能查看。最常用多少个参数如下:

  • -v, --verbose,输出完整的 debug 音信;
  • -n, --null-out,舍弃下载的多寡;
  • -a, --get-assets,下载 html 中的 css、js、image 等外链资源;
  • -H, --header = < HEADE福睿斯 >,增多央浼尾部字段,如 -H':method: PUT';
  • -u, --upgrade,使用 HTTP 的 Upgrade 机制来交涉 HTTP/2 公约,用于 h2c,详见上面包车型大巴例子;

以下是运用 nghttp 访谈 https://h2o.examp1e.net 的结果。从调节和测量检验音讯中得以清晰看出 h2c 协商以及 Server Push 的全套经过:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net'
[  0.201] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  1.180] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send HEADERS frame <length=39, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):16777216]
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) etag: "55542026-169d5"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-length: 92629
[  1.373] recv HEADERS frame <length=126, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=4)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) etag: "55542026-1388"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) content-length: 5000
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=4>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-english-search.js
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=6)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) etag: "55542026-34dd6"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-length: 216534
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=31, flags=0x04, stream_id=6>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/style.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=8)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) etag: "57e0c8aa-1586"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-length: 5510
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=58, flags=0x04, stream_id=8>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/searchstyle.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=10)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) etag: "57e0c8aa-8dd"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-length: 2269
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=27, flags=0x04, stream_id=10>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-english-search.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/style.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/searchstyle.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) cache-control: no-cache
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/html
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) last-modified: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 06:55:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) etag: "58e494d2-1665"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) set-cookie: h2o_casper=AmgAAAAAAAAAAAAYxfEYAAABSA; Path=/; Expires=Tue, 01 Jan 2030 00:00:00 GMT; Secure
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-length: 5733
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=304, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  1.375] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.566] recv DATA frame <length=16137, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=5000, flags=0x01, stream_id=4>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=4915, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=8>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2269, flags=0x01, stream_id=10>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.766] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33120)
[  1.767] recv DATA frame <length=9065, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2681, flags=0x01, stream_id=8>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.971] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33855)
[  1.971] recv DATA frame <length=10072, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.173] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.577] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.578] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.579] recv DATA frame <length=12762, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.777] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.777] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33241)
[  2.778] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.378] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.579] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33984)
[  3.583] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.779] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.395] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.396] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33975)
[  4.808] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.809] recv DATA frame <length=6379, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  5.010] recv DATA frame <length=3536, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.628] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33281)
[  6.057] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.273] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.924] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.141] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34020)
[  7.574] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.574] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34029)
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.998] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.425] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=4053, flags=0x01, stream_id=6>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.631] recv DATA frame <length=4443, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  8.633] recv DATA frame <length=1290, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.633] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=10, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

自然,大家也得以行使 grep 寻寻找来 server push 的连带 stream:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net' | grep 'PUSH_PROMISE'
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>

使用 NodeJS 搭建 HTTP/2 服务器

在大前端的时期背景下,客户端支付不会点 JavaScript 都快混不下去了,我那二日在自己司前端轮岗了两周,再加上在此之前也写过 ReactNative,但依然以为前端变化之快领人感叹,革命尚未终结,同志仍需努力啊。

咱俩直接上代码:

var http2 = require('http2');// http2
var url=require('url'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/url
var fs=require('fs'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/fs
var mine=require('mine');
var path=require('path'); // 路径

var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.key'),
  cert: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.crt')
}, function(request, response) {

    // var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = './push.json' ;//path.join(pathname,"push.json");    //这里设置自己的文件路径,这是该次response返回的内容;

    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : 'unknown';
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";

    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {

        console.log('success')
        response.writeHead(200, {
            'Content-Type': contentType
        });

        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,'binary'));

        // 注意 push 路径必须是绝对路径,这是该次 server push 返回的内容
        var pushItem = response.push('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json', {
                response: {
                  'content-type': contentType
                }    
        });
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json','binary'),()=>{
          console.log('newpush end')
        });

        response.end();

    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          'Content-Type': 'text/plain'
      });

      response.write("This request URL " + realPath + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }

});

server.listen(3000, function() {
  console.log('listen on 3000');
});

此地须求留心几点:

  • 创立http2的nodejs服必须须时依照https的,因为前几日主流的浏览器都要协理SSL/TLS的http2,证书和私钥能够本人通过OPENSSL生成。
  • node http2的相干api和健康的node httpserver一样,能够直接采纳。

应用 nghttp 测量检验一下大家的代码有未有实行 server push:

~ nghttp -nv 'https://localhost:3000/'
[  0.007] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  0.029] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send HEADERS frame <length=38, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: localhost:3000
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  0.043] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/plain
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.049] recv HEADERS frame <length=34, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  0.049] recv DATA frame <length=35, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: localhost:3000
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
[  0.050] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=56, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.050] recv HEADERS frame <length=2, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=21, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

看到了 PUSH_PROMISE 的帧,表达实行了 server push。

同等也足以选择chrome查看 server push,如下图所示:

图片 8

chrome 查看 http2 server push

服务端介绍焦点结束。下边大家来介绍一些 iOS 客商端对 Server Push 的施用。

iOS 使用 HTTP/2 Server Push

Apple 在那地方做的很好,基本完毕了客商端无感调用http/2 server push。不过小编查阅了有些资料,未来只有iOS 10 帮助 http/2。

直接上代码吧:

#import "ViewController.h"

@interface ViewController ()<NSURLSessionDelegate>

@property(nonatomic,strong)NSURLSession *session;

@end

@implementation ViewController

- (void)viewDidLoad
{
    [super viewDidLoad];
    // Do any additional setup after loading the view, typically from a nib.

}
#pragma mark - Touch
- (void)touchesBegan:(NSSet<UITouch *> *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event
{
    [self urlSession];
}
#pragma mark - 发送请求
- (void)urlSession
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000"];

    //发送HTTPS请求是需要对网络会话设置代理的
    _session = [NSURLSession sessionWithConfiguration:[NSURLSessionConfiguration defaultSessionConfiguration] delegate:self delegateQueue:[NSOperationQueue mainQueue]];

    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
        // 收到该次请求后,立即请求下次的内容
        [self urlSessionPush];

    }];

    [dataTask resume];
}

- (void)urlSessionPush
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json"];
    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
    }];
    [dataTask resume];
}

#pragma mark - URLSession Delegate
- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session didReceiveChallenge:(NSURLAuthenticationChallenge *)challenge completionHandler:(void (^)(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeDisposition, NSURLCredential * _Nullable))completionHandler
{
    // 这里还要设置下 plist 中设置 ATS
    if (![challenge.protectionSpace.authenticationMethod isEqualToString:@"NSURLAuthenticationMethodServerTrust"])
    {
        return;
    }
    NSURLCredential *credential = [[NSURLCredential alloc] initWithTrust:challenge.protectionSpace.serverTrust];
    completionHandler(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeUseCredential,credential);
}


- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session task:(NSURLSessionTask *)task didFinishCollectingMetrics:(NSURLSessionTaskMetrics *)metrics
{
    NSArray *fetchTypes = @[ @"Unknown", @"Network Load", @"Server Push", @"Local Cache"];

    for(NSURLSessionTaskTransactionMetrics *transactionMetrics in [metrics transactionMetrics])
    {

        NSLog(@"protocol[%@] reuse[%d] fetch:%@ - %@", [transactionMetrics networkProtocolName], [transactionMetrics isReusedConnection], fetchTypes[[transactionMetrics resourceFetchType]], [[transactionMetrics request] URL]);

        if([transactionMetrics resourceFetchType] == NSURLSessionTaskMetricsResourceFetchTypeServerPush)
        {
            NSLog(@"Asset was server pushed");
        }
    }
}

- (void)didReceiveMemoryWarning
{
    [super didReceiveMemoryWarning];
    // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated.
}

@end

分别看下服务端和顾客端的Log:
客户端:

Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[0] fetch:Network Load - https://localhost:3000/
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":" http2.0 server is ok"}
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[1] fetch:Server Push - https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] Asset was server pushed
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":"newPush"}

服务端:

http2-nodeServer npm start

> http2-nodeServer@1.0.0 start /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer
> node index.js

listen on 3000
success
newpush end

总的看确实是顾客端发出了一回呼吁,不过服务端只响应了壹回(该次响应+ server push)

正文相关德姆o

  • Github:lijianfeigeek

参谋文献

  • HTTP2 Server Push的研究 | AlloyTeam
  • 使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量 | JerryQu 的小站
  • objective c - HTTP/2 Server Push in iOS 10 - Stack Overflow
  • 使用NSURLSession或者AFN发送HTTPS请求 - 简书

版权声明:本文由大奖888-www.88pt88.com-大奖888官网登录发布于前端开发,转载请注明出处:原文出处,今天搞一下http2